Estimating the direct cost of Type 2 diabetes in Greece: the effects of blood glucose regulation on patient cost
Aims To estimate the annual cost of treatment for Type 2 diabetic patients in Greece and investigate the effect of blood glucose regulation on patient cost. Methods A multipoint data collection procedure based on the patient records of 51 geographically distributed physicians was used in order to obtain the necessary data for the analysis and the construction of the patient cost model. Patients were classified as controlled (i.e. maintaining blood glucose regulation for the 1 year retrospective time frame of the analysis) and non-controlled (the patients failing to do so in the specified time period). Cost categories included pharmaceutical expenditure, laboratory/diagnostic tests and consultation fees. Costs attributable to hospitalizations due to diabetic complications were not included. Calculations were based on 2007 fees and prices, and costs are expressed in Euros. Results The average annual cost of treatment for controlled patients was estimated at 981.72(sic) (95% confidence interval, 940.66-1023.01(sic)), whereas for non-controlled patients it was 1566.12(sic) (95% confidence interval, 1485.42-1650.20(sic)). Non-controlled patients had 29.7% higher annual pharmaceutical costs (340.50 vs. 441.96(sic)), 70% higher costs for laboratory/diagnostic tests (422.54 vs. 718.49(sic)) and 85.5% higher consultation costs (218.68 vs. 405.67(sic)) compared with their controlled peers. The average cost for a Type 2 diabetic patient in Greece, regardless of blood glucose regulation, was 1297.30(sic) (95% confidence interval, 1244.42-1349.61(sic)). Conclusions Failing to control blood glucose levels within 'glycaemic goals', apart from the clinical consequences, can also have a significant financial impact, resulting in a 59.5% increase in the mean annual patient cost.