Meat waste treatment methods and potential uses
Meat waste management has been and continues to be one of the most important issues related to pollution management. This was due to the high concentration of meat waste materials like blood, hair, tail, horns and bones, among others that have to be thoroughly and effectively treated prior to their disposal. Methods like aerobic and anaerobic digestion [mesophilic or thermophilic temperatures, composting (windrows, aerated static piles and bins or aerated chambers)] are currently extensively used. Nowadays, the emphasis is on reusing the so-called waste materials for production processes, i.e. meat and bone meal. The latter was widely recommended and used in animal nutrition as a protein source in place of proteinaceous feeds. However, this approach greatly suffered from Small Bowel Enteroclysis (SBE) occurrence and micro-organism presence. Heavy metal absorption by means of charred bones appears to be one of the most promising applications of bones apart from other use for production of edible materials. The aim of this review was to summarise most updated references in the field of meat waste treatment and potential uses of treated waste by means of nine informative tables and six figures.