Migration Phenomenon in Food Packaging. Food-Package Interactions, Mechanisms, Types of Migrants, Testing and Relative Legislation-A Review
The development of convenient and low-cost packages, together with the increased consumer demands for safer products, have resulted in the conduction of extensive research and the publication of numerous studies related to the phenomenon of migration. The large number of synthetic materials used for the manufacture of packages makes the evaluation of the food-package interactions quite complicated. Different parameters such as the nature of the food of interest, the type of food-package contact, the time and temperature of contact, the packaging materials used, the properties of the migrating substances, as well as the amount of potential migrants contained in the packaging materials, can drastically affect the migration rate and extent. Due to the extreme variety of foods used, several food simulants have been suggested and applied for testing the migration phenomenon under various laboratory conditions. The use of many of those simulants is defined by national and international legislation. This review article covers the main migration phenomena, which are related to the most commonly used packaging materials. It is clearly demonstrated that the complexity of the migration phenomena requires more research to establish internationally accepted risk management procedures and standardised testing methods.
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