Current and potential uses of thermally treated olive oil waste
The ongoing stricter policy rules on environmental issues, recent changes in consumer towards the environmental effects of food production, and even stricter regulations voted by the European Union towards reduction of the use of natural resources initiated a great amount of research towards improving the thermal waste treatment methodology. The olive oil industry continues to be one of the most heavily polluting ones among the food industries. Along this line, various thermal processes, such as pyrolysis, combustion and gasification, were investigated. Another crucial issue is the fate of treated waste. This review, apart from the presentation of various thermal treatment waste methodologies summarises the uses (either currently ongoing or having potential in the future): biodiesel, activated carbon and briquette production. Ten figures and four tables illustrated in this article provide comprehensive idea of the waste treatment methodologies, their effectiveness and uses of thermally waste treated olive materials.