Fish industry waste: treatments, environmental impacts, current and potential uses
Fish waste management has been one of the problems having the greatest impact on the environment. Fish farming detrimental effects on the marine environment in particular have become an issue of public concern. In European Union, numerous Directives, Decisions and Regulations were voted in an attempt to minimise the environmental impact of fisheries within the frame of Integrated Coastal Management. Treated fish waste has found many applications among which the most important are animal feed, biodiesel/biogas, dietic products (chitosan), natural pigments (after extraction), food-packaging applications (chitosan), cosmetics (collagen), enzyme isolation, Cr immobilisation, soil fertiliser and moisture maintenance in foods (hydrolysates). In this review, an update of both environmental impact (inputs and outputs) and treated fish waste uses is provided by means of six comprehensive tables and seven figures.