The development of a short form of the EMBU: Its appraisal with students in Greece, Guatemala, Hungary and Italy
AuthorArrindell, W. A.; Sanavio, E.; Aguilar, G.; Sica, C.; Hatzichristou, C.; Eisemann, M.; Recinos, L. A.; Gaszner, P.; Peter, M.; Batagliese, G.; Kallai, J.; van der Ende, J.
Out of the necessity of having an abbreviated form of the EMBU, a measure of perceived parental rearing behavior, a short form (s-EMBU) consisting of three scales (Rejection, Emotional Warmth and Protection) with respectively 7, 6 and 9 items (plus 1 unsealed item) was developed from the original 81-item version. The factorial and/or construct validity and reliability of this s-EMBU were examined among samples of 2442 students from Italy, Hungary, Guatemala and Greece. The data were presented for the four national groups separately. The 23-item s-EMBU is recommended as a reliable functional equivalent to the 81-item early EMBU, Attention was drawn to the need for further research to explain some of the observed cross-national differences in the correlations between parental rearing styles and personality. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved.