Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Under a Multimodal Analgesia Regime
AuthorAravantinos, E.; Kalogeras, N.; Stamatiou, G.; Theodorou, E.; Moutzouris, G.; Karatzas, A.; Melekos, M.
Objectives: To evaluate the possibility of performing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) under a multimodal analgesia regime. Patients and Methods: During a period of 3 years, 51 patients requiring PCNL were enrolled in the study. All patients received a multimodal analgesic regime that included paracetamol, a COX(2) inhibitor, epidural morphine, and infiltration of the surgical field with local anesthetics. Percutaneous renal tract access was created with ultrasound guidance. All patients were informed about the possibility of experiencing short periods of discomfort or pain, and all patients completed a visual analog pain scale questionnaire postoperatively. Results: All 51 patients completed the study, and the procedure was well tolerated. Intraoperative problems or postoperative complications were attributed mainly to the procedure itself (PCNL) rather than to the analgesic regimen administered. We observed no morphine-related side effects. Patients were transferred directly back to the ward immediately after the operation. The use of analgesics postoperatively was minimal. Conclusions: The use of our multimodal analgesia regime is a well-tolerated and safe alternative to general or regional anesthesia for patients undergoing PCNL.