Percutaneous nephrostomy in patients with tumors of advanced stage: Treatment dilemmas and impact on clinical course and quality of life
AuthorAravantinos, E.; Anagnostou, T.; Karatzas, A. D.; Papakonstantinou, W.; Samarinas, M.; Melekos, M. D.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome, in respect to safety, survival, and quality of life (QoL), after performance of percutaneous nephrostomy in patients with obstructive nephropathy caused by various types of advanced malignancy. Patients and Methods: A cohort of 270 patients with established nephropathy because of advanced pelvic or nonpelvic tumors was evaluated. A decision to obtain percutaneous access was made; primary stenting had either failed or was not feasible because of complicated anatomy. Patients were divided in equal groups by type of malignancy ( 54 patients each). In addition, each malignancy group was further divided in two equal subgroups by tumor burden ( 27 patients each). Correlations were made with respect to renal function outcome, overall survival after the procedure, and QoL differences both before and after the procedure. Results: No serious complications, such as severe bleeding or sepsis, were experienced because of the procedure. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences in survival among patients with different types of cancer. Only patients with prostate (P < 0.0365) and colorectal (P < 0.0307) cancer with lower tumor burden had significantly longer survival when compared with patients with large tumor burden. Regarding QoL scores, only patients with prostate cancer in the subgroup with low tumor burden demonstrated a positive statistically significant difference ( P < 0.001). Conclusions: Despite the fact that percutaneous nephrostomy has shown good safety characteristics and beneficial impact on renal function, only patients with specific cancers most likely to respond to ongoing palliative therapy or with cancers that progress slowly by nature may statistically benefit from the procedure. This questions the universal application of this procedure for all types and stages of advanced malignancy.