A gas chromatographic determination of residues of eleven insecticides and two metabolites on olive tree leaves
A gas chromatographic (GC) method was developed and statistically validated for the simultaneous determination of residues of pyrethroid, endosulfan, and organophosphorus insecticides and some of their metabolites on olive tree leaves. Pesticide residues were extracted by static extraction with acetone-dichloromethane. After evaporation of the extract to dryness and redissolution in acetone, the organophosphorus insecticides were determined by GC with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. Another portion of the extract, after solvent change to acetonitrile, was cleaned up on an Alumina-N cartridge and analyzed for insecticides sensitive to electron-capture detection (ECD), i.e., pyrethroids and endosulfan and its metabolite. Recoveries of the organophosphorus insecticides ranged from 80.7 to 93.3% With relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than or equal to7.2%; recoveries of the ECD-sensitive insecticides ranged from 71.6 to 89.5% with RSDs of less than or equal to11.6%. The method was used to analyze 26 samples of olive tree leaves from organic olive groves all over Greece, and the results confirmed the viability of the method for routine analysis. Residues of fenthion and fenthion sulfoxide were found in one and 3 samples, respectively, and their identities were confirmed by GC with mass spectrometry.