Bounding surface plasticity model for the seismic liquefaction analysis of geostructures
This paper presents the constitutive relations and the simulative potential of a new plasticity model developed mainly for the seismic liquefaction analysis of geostructures. The model incorporates the framework of critical state soil mechanics, while it relies on bounding surface plasticity with a vanished elastic region to simulate the non-linear soil response. Key constitutive ingredients of the new model are: (a) the inter-dependence of the critical state, the bounding and the dilatancy (open cone) surfaces on the basis of the state parameter psi, (b) a (Ramberg-Osgood type) non-linear hysteretic formulation for the "elastic" strain rate, (c) a discontinuously relocatable stress projection center related to the "last" load reversal point, which is used for mapping the current stress point on model surfaces and as a reference point for introducing non-linearity in the "elastic" strain rate and finally (d) an empirical index of the directional effect of sand fabric evolution during shearing, which scales the plastic modulus. In addition, the paper outlines the calibration procedure for the model constants, and exhibits its accuracy on the basis of a large number of laboratory element tests on Nevada sand. More importantly, the paper explores the potential of the new model by presenting simulations of the VELACS centrifuge tests of Models No 1 and 12, which refer to the free-field liquefaction response of Nevada sand and the seismic response of a rigid foundation on the same sand, respectively. These simulations show that the new model can be used successfully for the analysis of widely different boundary value problems involving earthquake soil liquefaction, with the same set of model constants calibrated on the basis of laboratory element tests. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.