Association between primary nocturnal enuresis and habitual snoring in children
AuthorAlexopoulos, E. I.; Kostadima, E.; Pagonari, I.; Zintzaras, E.; Gourgoulianis, K.; Kaditis, A. G.
Objectives. Nocturnal enuresis has been associated with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing mostly in hospital-referred adults and children. To investigate whether primary nocturnal enuresis is significantly associated with habitual snoring in the general pediatric population irrespective of subjects' age and sex, we studied children attending six randomly selected schools in a city in central Greece. Methods. A questionnaire regarding the symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing and the presence of nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting for at least one night per week) was answered by the children's parents. Results. A total of 1821 children (age 5 to 14 years; 896 girls) were included in the study. Of these, 135 (7.4%) were snoring more frequently than three nights per week (habitual snorers). The habitual snorers had a history of primary nocturnal enuresis more often than did nonhabitual snorers (7.4% versus 2%; odds ratio 4.00, 95% confidence interval 1.93 to 8.32). The association of primary nocturnal enuresis with habitual snoring remained significant after adjustment for age and sex (odds ratio 3.54, 95% confidence interval 1.68 to 7.44). Conclusions. In a community sample of children, those with habitual snoring more often had primary nocturnal enuresis than did those without snoring.